The theory held by many people including doctors that LDL cholesterol and saturated fat can cause heart disease is still a theory not yet proven to be true.
Plaque is known to constrict blood vessels that lead to heart disease. However, the smooth endothelium(one-cell thick lining of blood vessels) has to first be damaged in order for plaque to accumulate.
The low-density lipoprotein aka LDL(that carries cholesterol and lipids/fats) has to first enter damaged areas of the smooth endothelium(one-cell thick lining of blood vessels) in order to create plaque.
Cholesterol is found inside the lipoproteins and cholesterol cannot simply attach to the smooth endothelium nor damage it, it is a mistaken false theory that many doctors and writers of health sites still follow. LDL is also not 'bad' and its particle size doesn't affect heart disease.
Cholesterol cannot simply attach to the smooth endothelium, and therefore is not a cause of heart disease.
"Exactly how atherosclerosis begins or what causes it isn't known, but some theories have been proposed."
"No one knows the exact cause of atherosclerosis"
We have got cholesterol completely wrong
Blood cholesterol level and saturated fat are actually not the real
factors of heart disease. It is when the smooth endothelium(lining of
the blood vessels) get damaged by factors such as glycation(destruction
of protein fibers in blood vessels) that the low density lipoproteins
aka LDL(that carries fat and cholesterol) get to enter the damaged area.
The repeat of such endothelium damage and entering of the LDL
eventually forms plaque that can constrict the blood vessels and can
lead to heart disease. Other factors can also come from constriction of
the blood vessels by things like polyphenols(olive oil). Other
proinflammation factors can also weaken the blood vessels over time.
It is not cholesterol or saturated fat that leads to heart disease but the damage to the smooth lining of the blood vessels. Too much blood vessel 'scarring' is harmful. This is why it is important not to consume excessively on foods such as starches and sugar that are very high on the Glycermic Index, which can lead to glycation that can damage the lining of the blood vessels and set off the progression of heart disease.
People who still think that cholesterol level and saturated fat lead to heart disease are still not aware of the bigger picture of heart disease.
I realize that many researchers have not yet made such a conclusion perhaps they are not well-aware of the effects of glycation and other factors on the endothelium. Perhaps in future, this can be confirmed in lab studies. Maybe I will contact some researchers to offer them my opinion.
Deleterious effect of glycation on the ability of HDL to counteract the inhibitory effect of oxidized LDL on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.
Proinflammation: the key to arterial aging