Sunday, June 1, 2014

Cocoa consumption is linked to testicular cancer

I have already quit taking cocoa a long while ago due to the headaches it caused me time and time again. I have found the following research study linking cocoa consumption to testicular cancer, it would certainly get people to twice twice before consuming it again, or as frequently. If anybody wants to know of an alternative to cocoa, carob is a good alternative.

Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2672359/

"This correlation analysis suggests that cocoa consumption during early life might be correlated to both TC incidence among young men aged 20–34 years and hypospadias, a reproductive congenital defects supposed to underline the same pathogenetic mechanism of TC.

In particular, the increasing incidence of TC over time in developed countries is consistent with increases in the consumption of cocoa. The intake of some of the main sweet ingredients, in fact, such as cocoa and sweeteners increased significantly during the last 45 years in developed countries [8,9]. Over the years 1961–2004 cocoa consumption overall in developed countries grew at an average rate of 1 % per year [9]. For example, in Denmark cocoa consumption more than doubled in the period 1961–2004. Similar trends have been observed in other European countries [8,9]. The magnitude of these increases is similar to those noted for incidence rates of testicular cancer and other MRD. The reduced risk for testicular cancer for the cohorts of Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Japanese men born during World War II is also consistent with a greatly reduced supply of sweet foods and cocoa during the war.

Data from food balance sheets (FAOSTAT) indicate that the consumption of cocoa in Denmark, where TC and hypospadias rates are elevated, is among the highest in the world and is more than three times that in Finland, where MRD rates are rather low [9].

Is there any evidence that this association may be causal?

Cocoa powder is a complex substance containing several biologically active compounds, including theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, phenylethylamine and cannabinoid-like fatty acids [11].

Various studies reported that theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exerts toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy accompanied by aspermatogenesis or oligospermatogenesis and that even low doses of cocoa impair sperm quality [10–14]."


THEOBROMINE
http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol51/06-theobromine.html
"In human cells in vitro, theobromine induced sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal breaks."

Palindromes and Chromosomes
A new clue to the origin of genomic instability that leads to cancer
http://tuftsjournal.tufts.edu/2008/09/briefs/03/
"In the past decade, researchers have observed that many kinds of cancer are associated with areas in the genome-the genetic makeup of living things-where chromosomes break."

Taking substances that stretches the repair function of the genome doesn't seem a healthy wise idea but unnecessary.